*Algebra in the Early Grades***Table of Contents**

*Preface
Acknowledgements
About the Contributors
Skeptic's Guide to Algebra in the Early Grades *

PART I: The Nature of Early Algebra

- What is Algebra? What is Algebra Thinking?

*James J. Kaput* - Algebra From a Symbolization Point of View

*James J. Kaput, Maria L. Blanton, and Luis Moreno* - Making Use of Children's Powers to Produce

*John Mason* - Quantitative Reasoning and the Development of Algebraic Reasoning

*John P. (Jack) Smith III and Patrick W. Thompson* - Representational Thinking as a Framework for Introducing Functions in the Elementary Curriculum

*Erick Smith*

PART II: Students' Capacity for Algebraic Thinking

- Classroom Stories: Examples of Elementary Students Engaged in Early Algebra

*Virginia Bastable and Deborah Schifter* - Children's Reasoing About Change Over Time

*Cornelia Tierney and Stephen Monk* - What Is a Legitimate Arithmetic Number Sentence? The Case of Kindergarten and First-Grade Children

*Nitza Mark-Zigdon and Dina Tirosh* - Visualizing Algebraic Reasoning

*Timothy Boester and Richard Lehrer* - Early Algebrea Is Not the Same as Algebra Early

*David W. Carraher, Analúcia D. Schliemann, and Judah L.Schwartz* - Multiple Notational Systems and Algebraic Understandings: The Case of the "Best Deal" Problem

*Bárbara M. Brizuela adn Darrell Earnest* - Signed Numbers and Algebraic Thinking

*Irit Peled and David W. Carraher*

PART III: Issues of Implementation: Taking Early Algebra into the Classroom

- Content Matters: Algebraic Reasoning in Teacher Professional Development

*Megan Loef Franke, Thomas P. Carpenter, and Dan Battey* - Building District Capacity for Teacher Development in Algebraic Reasoning

*Maria L. Blanton and James J. Kaput* - Measure Up: A Quantitative View of Early Algebra

*Barbara Dougherty* - Early Algebra: What Does Understanding the Laws of Arithmetic Mean in the Elementary Grades?

*Deborah Schifter, Stephen Monk, Susan Jo Russell, and Virginia Bastable* - Early Algebra: The Math Workshop Perspective

*E. Paul Goldenberg and Nina Shteingold* - Multiple Notational Systems and Algebraic Understandings: The Case of the "Best Deal" Problem

*Barbara M. Brizuela adn Darrell Earnest* - Signed Numbers and Algebraic Thinking

*Irit Peled and David W. Carraher*

Afterword

- Early Algebra as Mathematical Sense Making

*Alan H. Schoenfeld*

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